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Smoke Signals and Chemawa American Now Available at Historic Oregon Newspapers Online!

Thanks to collaborations with the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde and funding from University of Oregon (UO) Libraries donors, three new important titles are now available for searching and browsing on Historic Oregon Newspapers online:

Smoke Signals masthead features the title, Smoke Signals, in bold, followed by text that reads: "A publication of the Grand Ronde Tribe, www.grandronde.org. Umpqua, Molalla, Rogue River, Kalapuya, Chasta

Smoke signals. (Grand Ronde, Or.) July 15, 2013, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93050714/2013-07-15/ed-1/seq-1/

Weekly Chemawa American masthead

Weekly Chemawa American. (Chemawa, Or.) December 30, 1910, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/ca15001324/1910-12-30/ed-1/seq-1/

The Chemawa American masthead

The Chemawa American. (Chemawa, Or.) April 01, 1915, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2003238611/1915-04-01/ed-1/seq-1/

This content is now available online in addition to the Klamath Tribune, which was published from 1956-1961 and documents the termination of the Klamath Tribes. (See our blog post from last spring for more information on the Klamath Tribune.)

Smoke Signals, the current newspaper of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, is now available for searching and browsing online with issues dating from 1978-2013. Smoke Signals started off as a monthly tribal newsletter in the 1970s as the Tribes were organizing to restore their tribal status, which had been terminated by the federal government in 1954. The U.S. Congress passed the Grand Ronde Restoration Act in 1983, restoring federally recognized status to the Tribes.

Clipping reads: "Grand Ronde's Restored! They say it was the strongest Restoration Bill ever presented to Congress! WIth fifty-seven letters of support and no opposition, our Bill was passed in the House on November 7, 1983, sponsored by Congressman Les AuCoin, D-Ore. 'This is a day of celebration,' said Rep. Les AuCoin, 'The Grand Ronde are a determined people who have earned the dignity of being called a Tribe once more.' On Nov. 11, 1983, Senator Hatfield presented it to the Senate where it passed without going through Committee. THis was a unique situation and was an important factor in its swift passage in the Senate. With this accomplished in both the U.S. House and the U.S. Senate; both of our Congressmen then pushed for the signing by the President; he signed it on Nov. 22, 1983, making our restoration Bill, H.R. 3885 (Union Calendar No. 276) into LAW! We are, and will ever be, grateful to Congressman AuCoin for introducing our Bill, Sept. 14, 1983; and, for his support and able-assistance throughout this entire legislation. Also, we are thankful to Senator Hatfield for his interest and staunch support which was the factor in the Senate's passage too. We are now looking forward to working with them, especially Congressman AuCoin, during the next two years on our Reservation Plan. We are now planning to have a Restoration celebration tentatively, sometime during the early part of 1984. We will have a notice in the newsletter when all plans are finalized. -Kathryn Harrison, Community Org."

Smoke signals. (Grand Ronde, Or.) November 01, 1983, Image 3. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93050714/1983-11-01/ed-1/seq-3/

In 1995, the paper started appearing twice a month, and in 2005, Smoke Signals became part of the Tribes’ Public Affairs Department. During its lifetime and through numerous staff changes, Smoke Signals has won many journalism awards from the Native American Journalists Association and Oregon Newspaper Publishers Association.

Clipping shows an image of two children in traditional regalia, dancing inside a gymnasium. Clipping reads: "Tribe Celebrates Restoration. Members unite to give thanks, recognize effort and achievements. Celebration - Tribal members Melissa Biery (left) and Shasta Wilson fancy shawl dance for an admiring crowd at the Annual Grand Ronde Restoration Day Pow-Wow, held in the new gymnasium at the Tribe's Education campus."

Smoke signals. (Grand Ronde, Or.) December 01, 2002, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93050714/2002-12-01/ed-1/seq-1/

The majority of issues from Smoke Signals were scanned from microfilm negatives at the University of Oregon (UO) Libraries, but the Tribe scanned and provided several early issues that were missing from the UO Libraries’ microfilm collection.

The Weekly Chemawa American, available online from 1901-1910, featured news articles, literature, and photographs by students who were attending a journalism class taught by staff of the Chemawa Indian Boarding School. The paper covered school news, student achievements, and events, and reported on interesting articles and topics found in various newspapers, such as the Oregonian, in addition to student editorials. By late 1914, the publication shifted to a monthly schedule, dropping “weekly” from the title to become The Chemawa American, now available online from 1914-1915.

Clipping from the Chemawa American reads: "Oregon Rural Schools: our system attracting attention everywhere. That the people living in rural districts of Oregon care more for their schools, are working harder to give their boys and girls a practical education, and have made a greater advance than any other state, is clearly proved by the reception which has been given the rural school  exhibit at the Panama Pacific International Exposition."

The Chemawa American. (Chemawa, Or.) December 01, 1915, Image 10. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2003238611/1915-12-01/ed-1/seq-10/

Chemawa Indian Boarding School is the oldest continually operating Indian Boarding School in the United States, established in 1880 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Forest Grove, Oregon, and then moved to Salem in 1885. The school has hosted students from throughout the western United States, including special groups of Alaskan natives, Navajo Indians, and in the earliest years, primarily students from Oregon’s tribal reservations. The school is still in operation today under management by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Image from the Weekly Chemawa American shows a fence and gate with a sign that says "Indian Training School" surrounding a yard with two trees and a building in the distance. Children are standing around the scene, with one child on a bicycle. Image is on the front page of Vol. 6 issue 8, dated November 14, 1902. Caption reads "Main school entrance."

Weekly Chemawa American. (Chemawa, Or.) November 14, 1902, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/ca15001324/1902-11-14/ed-1/seq-1/

All issues of the weekly and monthly Chemawa American were carefully scanned from the original paper documents, borrowed from the Cultural Exhibits and Archives program of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, where they are housed as part of the Charles Holmes collection. Charles Holmes was a teacher and the student newspaper advisor at the Chemawa Indian School from the 1950s – 1970s, and the collection includes thousands of photographs, correspondence, media, and other documents. Students at Willamette University have been working to catalogue and archive the many photographs from the Chemawa Indian School that are part of the Charles Holmes collection, led by archaeology professor Rebecca Dobkins in collaboration with the Tribes (read more about this project at http://www.grandronde.org/news/articles/dobkins-tells-chemawa-indian-school-stories-at-salem-library/).

Image shows a student with a yearbook and laptop, working at a desk. Caption reads: "Emilie Jensen, a senior at Willamette University in Salem, looks through a Chemawa Indian School yearbook from 1961 as she works on an assignment for her Native North American Cultures class in the college's archives on Thurs. Nov. 15. The yearbook is part of a collection that Chemawa industrial arts teacher and yearbook and newspaper advisor Charles Holmes had. The collection was donated to the Tribes after he walked on in 2011.

Smoke signals. (Grand Ronde, Or.) December 01, 2012, Image 5. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93050714/2012-12-01/ed-1/seq-5/

Special thanks to the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, as well as Jennifer O’Neal, University Historian and Archivist at the University of Oregon Libraries, and David Lewis (CTGR Tribal Historian), for facilitating this significant digitization project!

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Heppner Gazette-Times now online, 1923-1951!

Just in time for the holidays! Thanks to a partnership with the Morrow County Museum and the current Heppner Gazette-Times newspaper in Heppner, Oregon, historic issues of The Gazette-Times (1912-1925) and the Heppner Gazette-Times (1925-1951) are now available for keyword searching and browsing on Historic Oregon Newspapers online!

Clipping from the Heppner Gazette-Times reads: "Morrow County, Oregon - The Last Frontier - Bids You Welcome. Heppner and Morrow County Welcomes Settlers, Investors. Heppner, The County seat. Early History of Morrow County." Included is a photo of the "High School building at Heppner, erected in 1912 at approximate cost of $47,000.00"

Heppner gazette-times. (Heppner, Or.) 1925-current, February 09, 1928, 45th Anniversary Booster Edition, Image 35. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn97071042/1928-02-09/ed-1/seq-35/

The Morrow County Museum has partnered with the Oregon Digital Newspaper Program (ODNP) to digitize a wealth of historic newspaper content from Heppner, and these new additions provide a comprehensive view of the area’s history from a local newspaper perspective. (Please see our blog titled “Morrow County Now Represented in Historic Oregon Newspapers Online!” for an introduction to the history of Heppner.)

The following Heppner titles are currently available for viewing online, free and open to the public:

The majority of content on the Historic Oregon Newspapers website was published before 1922, due to the public domain copyright law that allows free and open use of anything published on or before Dec. 31, 1922. The new additions from The Gazette-Times and the Heppner Gazette-Times, as well as the post-1922 content from the Heppner Herald, is made possible with copyright agreements from the publishers for a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license. This means that any content that you find on the site that was published after 1922 can be used for non-commercial purposes, as long as proper attribution is given to the publisher and the Historic Oregon Newspapers website. For more information on copyright and newspapers, see our blog titled “Copyright and Historic Newspapers.”

Clipping from the Heppner Gazette-times shows an illustrated winter scene of a family walking and riding a horse-drawn carriage through the snow fallen landscape, with text that reads "May All the Blessings of the Yuletide Season be Yours the Joyous Holiday Time."

Heppner gazette-times. (Heppner, Or.) 1925-current, December 19, 1946, Image 3. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn97071042/1946-12-19/ed-1/seq-3/

‘Tis the season for exploring Oregon’s history through newspapers! Discover these and other Oregon newspaper titles at Historic Oregon Newspapers online, using the Title page to browse, the Search page to do advanced keyword searches across the collection, and the History page to learn more about newspaper history (more essays coming soon!). Happy Holidays!

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Partnership with Hood River County Library District Provides New Content for Historic Oregon Newspapers Online!

Historic newspaper content from the Hood River News (1909-1913), the Maupin Times (1914-1930), and previously missing content from The Dalles Weekly Chronicle is now available for searching and browsing online at Historic Oregon Newspapers, thanks to a partnership with the Hood River County Library District, with funding from Google’s The Dalles Data Center and the Hood River Cultural Trust.

Hood River Illustration - the West Shore

An Historic Illustration of Hood River from the West Shore from 1887. The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, November 01, 1887, Image 9 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2012260361/1887-11-01/ed-1/seq-9/

Located on the Oregon side of the Columbia River Gorge among the Cascade Mountains, the community of Hood River was incorporated in 1895 as part of Wasco County, but became the county seat of the newly established Hood River County in 1908. At the confluence of the waters descending from Mount Hood meeting the Columbia River, the town is known for shipping, agriculture, brewing, and outdoor recreation.

Maupin Masthead

The Maupin times. (Maupin, Or.) 1914-1930, September 02, 1914, Image 1 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088123/1914-09-02/ed-1/seq-1/

 

The Maupin Times, published from 1914-1930 in Maupin, Oregon, on the Deschutes River in Wasco County, describes the rural happenings of the agricultural community east of Mount Hood, 40 miles from the Columbia River. Historic Oregon Newspapers online offers issues of the paper’s full run from 1914-1930.

Salmon in Maupin

Big local news includes Salmon Fishing as the source of leisure and commerce along the Deschutes River in 1915. he Maupin times. (Maupin, Or.) 1914-1930, May 14, 1915, Image 1 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088123/1915-05-14/ed-1/seq-1/

 

HR News Masthead

The Hood River news. (Hood River, Or.) 1909-current, January 01, 1913, Image 1 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn83009939/1913-01-01/ed-1/seq-1/

 

The Hood River News began publishing in 1909, and continues to this day. In the 1939, the newspaper won the National Editorial Association trophy for best editorial page. Newly digitized issues of historic content from the News cover 1909-1913. Vivid full-page advertisement spreads accentuate the bold graphic style at the heart of this paper, not to mention the local coverage of the Hood River community!

Hood River XMas 1911

The Hood River news. (Hood River, Or.) 1909-current, December 20, 1911, Image 6 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn83009939/1911-12-20/ed-1/seq-6/

 

 

D W C masthead

The Dalles weekly chronicle. (The Dalles, Or.) 1890-1947, December 20, 1890, Image 1 http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2003260222/1890-12-20/ed-1/seq-1/

 

Also unique to Historic Oregon Newspapers online is previously missing issues of The Dalles Weekly Chronicle.  The Dalles is county seat of Wasco County, home to a major hydro-electric dam and locks and connection to central Oregon. It represented the end of the river for those settling the Oregon Trail, where they might head toward Portland on the Barlow Road.  In 1890, the town was a rail and boat hub, and the Weekly Chronicle was founded on issues of flooding and water access for the area.  Although portions of this title have been available on the site for a few years, we have now filled in gaps in the content for 1893, July-Dec. of 1894, 1899, and 1900, so all content from Dec. 1890-1900 is now available.

Enjoy all the new papers made available through the historic preservation efforts of these remarkable partnerships, and find more history at Historic Oregon Newspapers!

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Beaverton Papers Now Available!

Thanks to the funding and partnership of the Beaverton Library Foundation and the Beaverton Historical Society, the Beaverton Owl and Beaverton Times are now available on Historic Oregon Newspapers online.

Quick history of Beaverton

Beaverton is a community to the west of Portland, Oregon. Its name comes from beaver dams that could be found in the formerly marshy country; in fact, the area had been named Chakeipi, place of the beaver, before settlers arrived. The town was incorporated in 1893 with a population around 400. Today, Beaverton has around 93,542 people.

Historic Papers in Beaverton

The Beaverton Owl and the Beaverton Times began as the Beaverton Reporter in 1909, before being bought by Earl E. Fisher and changed to the Owl.

You Will Like Beaverton

The Owl has the creative feature of having a unique tagline above the masthead in each issue. Often, the sayings are enticing people to visit or enjoy the town of Beaverton. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088375/1914-05-16/ed-1/seq-1/

We have issues of The Beaverton Owl from July 20 1912 to May 16, 1914.  You can easily access these issues in the Historic Newspapers Calendar View. Additionally, you can easily search the title for terms.

Fishing Poem - Times

A paean to fishing in The Owl, a hobby particular to the creeks and streams of the Northwest where trout run on the Willamette and Columbia watersheds.

Like the Report before it, the Owl was succeeded by The Beaverton Times in 1914 after being purchased by Hicks & Davis.

Historic Oregon Newspapers online now has weekly coverage of The Beaverton Times from August 19, 1915 – June 9, 1922.  Browse the issue calendar, or search the paper.

1919 - BT - Roads Grow

Clippings from the Beaverton Times in 1919 speak to the city’s rapid growth and modernization in connection with the growth of the metropolitan region. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088374/1919-08-01/ed-1/seq-1/

Find even more interesting stories from Beaverton and all around the state at Historic Oregon Newspapers online.

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Hillsboro Now Represented on Historic Oregon Newspapers Online!

Several historic newspaper titles from Hillsboro, county seat of Washington County, Oregon, are now available for keyword searching and browsing online at Historic Oregon Newspapers, thanks to a partnership with the Hillsboro Public Library! The following titles can be found listed in alphabetical order on the Historic Oregon Newspapers Titles page, and they can be selected for title-specific keyword searching on the Search page:

Washington Independent

Masthead from the Washington independent. (Hillsboro, Washington County, Or.) 1874-18??, September 21, 1876, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn84022654/1876-09-21/ed-1/seq-1/

Washington County Independent

Masthead from Washington County independent. (Hillsboro, Washington County, Or.) 18??-188?, January 17, 1881, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93051620/1881-01-17/ed-1/seq-1/

The Independent. A Government of the People, for the People, and by the People.

Masthead from The independent. (Hillsboro, Washington County, Or.) 188?-189?, April 26, 1888, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn93051621/1888-04-26/ed-1/seq-1/

Hillsboro Independent

Masthead from Hillsboro independent. (Hillsboro, Washington County, Or.) 189?-1932, September 08, 1893, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088159/1893-09-08/ed-1/seq-1/

The Argus

Masthead from The Argus. (Hillsboro, Or.) 1894-1895, August 09, 1894, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088160/1894-08-09/ed-1/seq-1/

The Hillsboro Argus

Masthead from The Hillsboro argus. (Hillsboro, Or.) 1895-current, August 15, 1895, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn84006724/1895-08-15/ed-1/seq-1/

Here are just a few clippings from these titles that we found to be interesting, but there are countless more headlines, articles, advertisements, images, and other curiosities just waiting to be discovered in these Hillsboro newspapers!

Photo of a street, with caption: "street scene in Hillsboro"

Hillsboro independent. (Hillsboro, Washington County, Or.) 189?-1932, February 08, 1907, Image 8. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn96088159/1907-02-08/ed-1/seq-8/

Article from the Hillsboro Argus states: "Washington County, the county bountiful of Oregon. By virtue of location alone, Washington County is most favored. Being just a short run from Portland, the business center of the state, furnishes opportunity for the farmer to go there, dispose of his products and return home the same day. This is, of course, always a most valuable phase of the situation, for many people of means desire to live within comparatively easy access to a metropolis, and when the projected electric road is complete, Hillsboro will be an ideal spot for the country homes of Portland business men who can go to and from the city with promptness and comfort."

The Hillsboro argus. (Hillsboro, Or.) 1895-current, February 07, 1907, The Resources of Washington County, Image 5. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn84006724/1907-02-07/ed-1/seq-5/

Clipping shows photo of an older couple with text that reads: "Sixtieth anniversary. There are few couples who live to celebrate their sixtieth wedding anniversary, but Hillsboro has one. Mr. and Mrs. J.Q. Adams, of Seventh Street, were wedded sixty years April 18, and all the living sonds and daughters were in attendance excepting Charles E. who lives in Texas, and Mrs. Chas Coffin, of Todd, Alaska. Twenty-seven grandchildren were in attendance. A splendid time was enjoyed by the descendants of this worthy couple. The Argus joins in wishing Mr. and Mrs. Adams many more anniversaries."

The Hillsboro argus. (Hillsboro, Or.) 1895-current, June 03, 1920, Image 5. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/sn84006724/1920-06-03/ed-1/seq-5/

 

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Klamath Tribune Broadens Scope of Historic Oregon Newspapers Online

The Oregon Digital Newspaper Program (ODNP) is pleased to announce the addition of the Klamath Tribune to the Historic Oregon Newspapers online keyword-searchable database! Published in Chiloquin, Oregon from 1956-1961 by the Klamath Information and Education Program (a facet of the Oregon State Department of Education), this is the first newspaper solely covering Tribal issues that we have digitized and added to the website, in partnership with the Klamath Tribes and a generous University of Oregon Libraries donor.

Klamath Tribune Masthead

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, February 01, 1960, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1960-02-01/ed-1/seq-1/

The Klamath Tribune was published in the wake of the U.S. Congress’ 1954 decision to terminate federal recognition of the Klamath Tribes, which include the Klamath, Modoc, and Yahooskin Band of Paiute Indians. The decision was controversial, given that an official report from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) stated that the Klamath Tribes did not meet the criteria for termination, and there was major opposition from Tribal members. The Klamath Termination Act, otherwise known as Public Law 587, was framed in the context of helping the Tribes, but the effects of termination were overwhelmingly negative. (More information can be found online at The Klamath Tribes’ website.)

Clipping reads: "It is the purpose of this article to explain to the Klamath people the methods we intend to use and the objectives of the informational program as authorized under section 26 of Public Law 587. Public Law 587 provides for the ending of federal supervision over the property and income of the Klamath Indians, both as a tribe and as individuals. This means that under the law as passed, individual members of the tribe will no longer be subject to Federal control over their property and income as of August 13, 1958."

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, November 01, 1956, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1956-11-01/ed-1/seq-1/

The Klamath Information and Education Program was created to help Tribal members assimilate into Anglo-American culture. Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Klamath Tribune appeared in November of 1956 as a means of communication with Tribal members in preparation for termination and to inform them of educational opportunities available to them under Section 26 of the termination law, which stated that:

Sec. 26. Prior to the issuance of a proclamation in accordance with the provisions of section 18 of this Act, the Secretary is authorized to undertake, within the limits of available appropriations, a special program of education and training designed to help the members of the tribe earn a livelihood, to conduct their own affairs, and to assume their responsibilities as citizens without special services because of their status as Indians. Such program may include language training, orientation in non-indian community customs and living standards, vocational training and related subjects, transportation to the place of training or instruction, and subsistence during the course of training or instruction. For the purposes of such program the Secretary is authorized to enter into contracts or agreements with any Federal, State, or local government agency, corporation, association, or person. Nothing in this section shall preclude any Federal agency from undertaking any other program for the education and training of Indians with funds appropriated to it. Approved August 13, 1954."

Section 26 from Public Law 587, “An Act to provide for the termination of Federal supervision over the property of the Klamath Tribe of Indians located in the State of Oregon and the individual members thereof, and for other purposes.”

The Klamath Tribune included:

Tribal news, with a focus on education-related news items and individual achievements:

Photo of two young women working with test tubes and other scientific equipment, with caption that reads: "Helen Nelson Now Studying Medical Technology At O.T.I. Under Klamath Education Program."

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, February 01, 1958, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1958-02-01/ed-1/seq-1/

“Q&A” sections about the Termination law (otherwise known as “Public Law 587”):

Clipping reads: "Public Law 587 Information Given; Questions Raised by Tribal Members. Following are some of the questions concerning public law 587, which have been asked most often by members of the Klamath Tribe with the answers to those questions. General: 1. Question: If a member of the tribe elects to withdraw under the termination law or decides to sell his allotted lands, must he leave the reservation? Answer: No, as a citizen of the United States he is free to live anywhere he chooses. However, if he sells his land to another person, he can no longer live on those lands without the new owner's permission. 2. Question: Under Public Law 587, at what point will cash payment be made to those who wish to withdraw from the tribe? Answer: Under section 5 a (3), it is provided that whenever funds from sale of tribal property have accumulated in the amount of $200,000 or more, such funds shall be distributed equally to the members electing to withdraw. Thereafter distribution shall be made any time such funds total $200,000 or more until all the property set aside for sale has been sold and the funds distributed. Guardianships: 1. Question: What is section 15 of Public Law 587 and what is its purpose? Answer: Section 15 relates to guardianships for tribal members who need guardians. Section 15 was included to make sure that the money and property of minors and persons adjudged to be mentally incompetent by a state court are protected. Section 15 also deals with persons who for other reasons need help in handling their money and other property. 2. Question: Were guardianship law established for the Klamath Indians only? Answer: No, section 15 conforms to existing laws in Oregon requiring that guardianships be established to protect the property of minors and others in need of protection. The property of any child in Orgon, Indian or non Indian, can not be handled by another person without the establishment of a guardianship. 3. Question: What are the steps in setting up a guardianship in Oregon?"

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, November 01, 1956, Image 3. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1956-11-01/ed-1/seq-3/

Recommendations for agriculture, ranching, and home-keeping practices:

Clipping shows an illustration of an alfalfa plant, and says, "Alfalfa has a deep tap-root system. Because of this characteristic it does not do well on soil that has a hardpan near the surface. Often subsoiling or chiseling is only of temporary benefit, but it will help the roots to penetrate into the subsoil. Good drainage, both surface and sub-surface, are necessary for a thrifty alfalfa stand. During winter when the plants are dormant they may withstand several days of flooding, but during the growing season one day of flood may harm them greatly."

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, November 01, 1956, Image 4. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1956-11-01/ed-1/seq-4/

Information on water rights, and other political, economic, and environmental issues:

"Water Use Increases Crop Production, Protects Water Rights. Will you have any water rights after termination? You can greatly strengthen your right to the use of irrigation water by developing it before termination. The time to start that irrigation system is right now so it can be used this year."

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, April 01, 1957, Image 4. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1957-04-01/ed-1/seq-4/

Although Tribal perspectives were included, the paper was primarily dedicated to persuading Tribal members to actively learn and participate in the dominant Anglo-American culture and way of doing things:

Advertisement says "Have You Registered to Vote? Deadline for registration in Oregon is October 7, 1960...For the City of Chiloquin election register at the Chiloquin City Hall. Register, then vote. Power in a democracy springs from the People." Illustration shows a line of different people waiting to go to the voting booth, with a stereotypical-looking Native American, labeled "Ed Chilquin", at the end of the line.

Klamath tribune. (Chiloquin, Or.) 1956-1961, September 01, 1960, Image 4. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260350/1960-09-01/ed-1/seq-4/

The last issue of the Tribune was published in July of 1961. By 1986, the Klamath Tribes were successful in restoring their federally recognized tribal status through the Klamath Restoration Act. The addition of the Klamath Tribune to the Historic Oregon Newspapers database is a crucial step towards representing the full range of Oregon’s history and cultural heritage in our online newspaper collection. Go check it out, explore, and see for yourself! You never know what you might find in the newspaper pages of the past.

Sources:

Robbins, William G. “Subtopic : People, Politics, and the Environment Since 1945: Termination.” The Oregon History Project. Oregon Historical Society. Web. Accessed April 30, 2014. <http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/narratives/subtopic.cfm?subtopic_ID=171&gt;

The Klamath Tribes. “History.” The Klamath Tribes. Web. Accessed April 30, 2014. <http://www.klamathtribes.org/history.html&gt;

The Klamath Tribes. “Termination.” The Klamath Tribes. Web. Accessed April 30, 2014. <http://www.klamathtribes.org/background/termination.html&gt;

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St. Helens Mist: New Content Just Added!

New content from Columbia County’s first newspaper, St. Helens’ Oregon Mist, later titled the St. Helens Mist, has just been added to the Historic Oregon Newspapers website!

Masthead from the Oregon Mist: "Largest Circulation in the County, The Oregon Mist, Twice a Week"

The Oregon mist. (St. Helens, Columbia County, Or.) 188?-1913, March 27, 1912, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260421/1912-03-27/ed-1/seq-1/

Working backwards through time in our digitization efforts, the Oregon Mist is now available for keyword searching and browsing from July 15, 1910-Feb. 14, 1913, and the St. Helens Mist is now available from Jan. 2, 1913-April 22, 1921. This newly added content was digitized in partnership with the St. Helens Public Library, with a grant from the Columbia County Cultural Coalition.

Image from page one of the Oregon Mist - a photograph of a schoolhouse building with caption that reads: "The New School House at St. Helens."

The Oregon mist. (St. Helens, Columbia County, Or.) 188?-1913, April 10, 1912, Image 1. http://oregonnews.uoregon.edu/lccn/2004260421/1912-04-10/ed-1/seq-1/

Earlier issues of the Oregon Mist, from Aug. 7, 1891-July 7, 1910, are scheduled to be digitized over the next two years as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program. Stay tuned for more announcements and highlights to come!

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New ODNP article in the Oregon Library Association Quarterly Journal!

Fall is officially here, and what better way to celebrate than by checking out the Fall 2012 issue of the OLA Quarterly, themed “Libraries, Museums, and Oregon’s Cultural History.” As a program fully geared toward preserving, providing access to, and educating people about Oregon’s cultural history, the ODNP is featured on page 14 with an article by ODNP Project Coordinator S.J. Rabun, titled “Oregon Digital Newspaper Program: Preserving History While Shaping the Future.”

The article outlines the goals and accomplishments of the ODNP, the process that brings newspapers from printed page to computer screen, and highlights from some of the unique newspaper titles that our Historic Oregon Newspapers searchable online database includes. Happy fall, and happy reading!

Drawing of a woman in roman style dress with a cornucopia at her feet.

The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) September 30, 1906, Page 16. http://tinyurl.com/8mdhhqe

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The Politics of Prohibition in Oregon

As most of us likely already know, the U.S. once grappled with the question of whether or not to ban the production, distribution, and sale of alcohol. In fact, a federal ban was instituted for about thirteen years, from 1920 to 1933, known as the “prohibition of alcohol,” or commonly known just as “prohibition.” We’ve likely seen period films that make some reference to the prohibition, or have a general idea of what the whole issue was about, but we probably don’t think much about it since the issue has long since been resolved (although, there are still some “dry” counties in Texas and other states). However, when we do think about prohibition, we might not realize that it was stooped in political debates and propaganda like any other political issue, and just like today’s political debates, everyone and their grandmother had an opinion.

The archives here at the Oregon Digital Newspaper Program are filled with editorials, advertisements, and the opinions of various individuals of alleged authority weighing in on the matter. Historic newspapers give us an idea of the political debate surrounding the issue within the state of Oregon at the time, as well as what types of arguments were made for or against it. It’s striking to see how little political debates have changed over time in terms of the ways in which they are framed and spoken about.

The following piece in The Bend Bulletin from 1910 is a nice example. It’s a call to the men of Oregon to vote against prohibition and, by doing so, retain their “local option” to have alcohol in their own homes and communities (women didn’t gain the right to vote until 1912, hence why the advertisement is directed only at men):

Newspaper ad encouraging male voters to vote against prohibition laws.

The Bend bulletin. (Bend, Or.) 1903-1931, November 02, 1910, Image 2. http://tinyurl.com/9z2vf6o

The rhetoric used in this piece is similar to what we see today in that it uses scare tactics, appeal to emotion, the language of government intrusion into the home, alleged threats to the family and personal privacy, and claims that one will be robbed of his or her freedoms and rights if the measure in question were to pass. The idea is to get the reader emotionally worked up and in doing so, side-step or ignore the validity of the argument, or lack thereof. The truthfulness of the claim is not what matters here, or even whether or not the reader agrees with the proposed measure. Rather, the point is to incite outrage and anger over potential consequences, and to encourage the reader to vote a certain way out of fear of those consequences. As we approach the upcoming election this year, regardless of which way you intend to vote, be aware of this tactic, as it’s still heavily used today.

Another ad in the Medford Mail Tribune from 1910 warns businessmen that they can’t afford to allow prohibition to pass, because it would adversely affect them financially through a decrease in property values, stagnation of business, and a “halt in progress.”

This newspaper ad explains what prohition means for businessmen of Oregon.

Medford mail tribune. (Medford, Or.) 1909-1989, November 06, 1910, SECOND SECTION, Page 15, Image 15. http://tinyurl.com/8tbf9dk

Again, similar arguments can be seen today in a wide variety of issues, ranging from same-sex marriage and gun control laws, to measures involving road construction and changes to public transportation. Political issues in the early 1900s, as today, were often framed as being of primary concern to business owners. This is unsurprising considering that business owners tend to have greater financial and social capital, and unfortunately, as a result, tend to also have greater political influence than the average citizen.

However, business owners weren’t the only ones concerned with prohibition. In this clip from The Coos Bay Times, from 1908, clergy from all over the east coast weighed in, strongly opposing prohibition. Regardless of the political or social issue in question, we often turn to religious leaders, and perhaps more commonly today, celebrities, as sources of authority.

Members of the clergy offer their opinions on prohibition laws.

The Coos Bay times. (Marshfield, Or.) 1906-1957, May 26, 1908, Page 2, Image 2. http://tinyurl.com/8hd9kt9

Another tactic that can be found in almost any political debate is the use of statistics to argue for or against an issue, illustrated in this next clip from the same edition and page of The Coos Bay Times. The argument made here is that statistics show greater lawlessness and more arrests when Lane County was “dry” (alcohol was prohibited), than when it was “wet” (alcohol was not prohibited).

This article draws on statistical evidence to argue that prohibition laws don't work.

The Coos Bay times. (Marshfield, Or.) 1906-1957, May 26, 1908, Page 2, Image 2. http://tinyurl.com/8hd9kt9

Lastly, what political debate would be complete without a mix-up in terminology and a looming threat of increased taxes? *gasp* These two clips from the October 29th and October 15th, 1914 editions of the Eagle Valley News illustrate these examples, respectively:

This newspaper clip points out a mistake that was made in the prohibition campain.

Eagle Valley news (Richland, Or.) 191?-1919, October 29, 1914, Image 3. http://tinyurl.com/9ywd882

This newspaper ad warns voters that passing prohibition laws will increase taxes.

Eagle Valley news (Richland, Or.) 191?-1919, October 15, 1914, Image 5. http://tinyurl.com/cjsnd37

There seems to be little argument for prohibition in much of Oregon’s news print of the time. The majority of what was written appears to be in opposition to prohibition. However, this piece in The Coos Bay Times, written by Rev. F. W. Jones on May 11th, 1908, urged voters to vote for prohibition:

This op-ed piece pleads with voters to vote for prohibition.

The Coos Bay times. (Marshfield, Or.) 1906-1957, May 11, 1908, Page 4, Image 4. http://tinyurl.com/8o6ywmc

However, when your article is printed next to an advertisement for a sausage company and is framed as a desperate “plea,” it’s likely that you’re not being taken all that seriously. Anyone who has read The Jungle by Upton Sinclair knows that the meat packing industry of the era wasn’t exactly something to be lauded and was probably not the type of advertisement you’d want your op-ed piece to be associated with.

In the end, prohibition came and went, and little thought is given to it today. We have since turned our attention to other issues, many of which are arguably as much of a non-issue as the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol, at least in this blogger’s opinion. However, much of the ways in which political debates are conducted, and many of the tactics that are used, have remained the same. We’re still bombarded with statistics ad nauseum from even more media sources than during the prohibition era. We’re still given arguments based on logical fallacies, and we still turn to religious leaders and celebrities as sources of authority, even when their claims to such authority are questionable. It is important to remember, especially as we approach the upcoming presidential election, to be critical of the information we’re given, the source of that information, and what biases may be present.

Our historic newspapers would suggest that Oregon was never really all that interested in supporting prohibition. Perhaps it should be no surprise to us, then, that Oregon has come to produce some of the best organic beers and wine in the country, and Portland, specifically, is now known for having a unique brand of beer snobbery, possibly as a result. However, whether you drink alcohol or not, Oregon is likely to remain a “wet” state for the foreseeable future, or at least until we decide to engage in collective amnesia, and as a state or nation, feel compelled to revisit a social and political issue that has long since been settled. If we do, though, the Oregon Digital Newspaper Program will be around to provide us with valuable insight into the past.

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